In the latest survey, 69 percent of respondents chose the first option, compared to only 23 percent who chose the latter. Just six months ago, the gap was 65-28 percent.
"If you look broadly across the Index, there's not much public support for the use of military force on any issue," noted ret. Adm. Bobby Ray Inman, a former deputy director of the CIA who serves on Public Agenda's board of directors.
In that respect, presumptive Republican presidential candidate Sen. John McCain, who has taken markedly more hawkish positions on the Middle East, Russia, and China than either of the two remaining Democratic candidates, Sens. Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton, could be particularly vulnerable in the upcoming elections, according to Daniel Yankelovich, a veteran pollster who chairs Public Agenda.
"I think the candidates' positions on foreign policy haven't communicated yet throughout the electorate," Yankelovich said. "When they do... the hawkishness of McCain will work against him (so long as) the Democrats find a way of countering his position."
Indeed, a large plurality of 47 percent of respondents said that Washington should use diplomacy to try establish better relations with Iran -- up from 35 percent six months ago -- while 28 percent said it should seek the imposition of international economic sanctions to press Iran to freeze its nuclear program, and another 11 percent said the U.S. need not do anything at all.
By contrast, only 12 percent of respondents said the U.S. should either threaten or actually take military action against Tehran, down from 19 percent of respondents who took that position just six months ago.
In addition, seven out of 10 respondents agreed with the assertion that "to resolve the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, the U.S. and Israel will have to work with unfriendly countries in the Middle East, such as Syria."
The Index, the latest edition of which addressed some 110 foreign policy-related questions to more than 1,000 adults, has sought, among other things, to identify what foreign policy issues provoke the most concern in the general public and whether that concern has reached a "tipping point" that could result in major political consequences.
In the October 2006 survey, Yankelovich found that public dissatisfaction with Bush's performance in Iraq had reached such a "tipping point." The mid-term elections the following month, in which Democrats won control of both houses of Congress, appeared to bear out his thesis.
In the latest survey, Yankelovich said the issue of oil prices and uncertainty about future energy sources appears to be reaching such a point, outpacing any other concern by a wide margin.
Not only did seven in 10 respondents say they worry "a lot" about energy costs, but six in 10 said that reducing energy dependence on foreign oil would strengthen U.S. national security "a great deal," the highest percentage since the Index was launched. Only 19 percent of respondents gave the Bush administration grades of A or B in addressing the problem, while 53 percent rated its performance as D or worse.
"The public's concerns about energy policy aren't limited to rising gas prices," said Yankelovich. "Americans are connecting energy policy to national security issues in ways that they didn't just a few years ago." Moreover, he noted, 39 percent of respondents said they worry "a lot" about global warming, up from 32 percent two years ago.
The decline in the percentage of respondents who worry "a lot" about the Iraq war may be due more to the relative decline in news coverage of the war over the last six months, particularly as higher energy prices and other negative economic developments have displaced it in the headlines, according to both Inman and Yankelovich. "The press is not covering it as much as before, but the basic attitude (toward the war) is the same," said Yankelovich.
Indeed, 65 percent of respondents said they believe the U.S. should withdraw all its troops from Iraq either "immediately" (21 percent) or over the next 12 months (44 percent), compared to 67 percent (19 percent and 48 percent), respectively, six months ago.
Overall, the public is slightly less anxious about foreign policy than it was a year ago when the Index's 'Anxiety Indicator' reached a record high of 137 out of a possible 200.
The Indicator, which is based on answers to five key questions, now stands at 132 -- the composite score of the 84 percent of respondents who said they are worried about the way things are going for the U.S. in world affairs; the 74 percent who believe that the world is "becoming more dangerous" for the country; the 69 percent who believe the U.S. is not doing a "good job as a leader in creating a more peaceful and prosperous world"; the 64 percent who believe the rest of the world has a negative impression of the U.S.; and the 65 percent who believe U.S. relations with the rest of the world are on the "wrong track."
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Albion Monitor April
30, 2008 (http://www.albionmonitor.com)
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